Sunday, July 19, 2020

How To Disable Firefox DNS-over-HTTPS On Your Network

Firefox includes a quite useful option since more than a year now that enables the web browser to use DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH) protocol to encrypt all the DNS requests on the network. This feature promises enhanced privacy to users such that anyone on your network path, like your ISP, wont be able to monitor or log your DNS traffic. The DoH protocol also protects your DNS requests from Man In The Middle (MITM) attacks which are possible with the default unencrypted UDP based DNS requests.

While, DoH is a really interesting feature to have from privacy perspective, it is Firefox's implementation that is a bit controversial. Firefox has deal with two public DNS providers, Cloudflare and NextDNS, in its Trusted Recursive Resolver (TRR) program which lists these providers directly into the web browser's DoH options. The controversy is Firefox enabling DoH for users automatically with an opt-out policy.

Not just Firefox but, Google Chrome and Microsoft Windows 10 is also implementing DoH support. Google Chrome's approach is a bit different from Firefox. Chrome will upgrade to use DoH protocol if you are already using a public DNS provider that supports DoH protocol. Microsoft is experimenting with a similar DoH upgrade approach with Windows 10 insider builds.

Firefox's opt-out policy bypasses the local network policies by not using the DNS servers provided by the network administrators. This creates headache for network administrators who wish to keep track or filter DNS traffic for security or other reasons. This is an issue even with people who use DNS based filtering software on their home network.

To help network administrators, Firefox has introduced a Canary domain to disable DoH on their networks. Using this canary domain (, a network administrator can signal Firefox on their networks to disable the automatic switch to DoH. However, its important to note that if a user configures DoH manually, then the canary domain signal is ignored by the web browser.
Note: The canary domain only applies to users who have DoH enabled as the default option. It does not apply for users who have made the choice to turn on DoH by themselves.
To disable DoH on your network, you need to either block the canary domain entirely such that the DNS server responds with a NXDOMAIN response code or that the server returns an empty response with no A or AAAA records.

You can do this configuration on your Technitium DNS Server setup by simply adding an empty zone for the canary domain. The zone once added must look like as shown in the screenshot below:

Firefox Canary Domain Zone Configuration
Firefox Canary Domain Zone Configuration
With this configuration, you can ensure that Firefox on your network wont automatically switch to using DoH protocol bypassing your local network DNS servers.

Let me know if you have any queries in the comments below or send an email to

Technitium DNS Server And Mesh Archived In Arctic Code Vault

I just discovered this exciting news that Technitium DNS Server and Technitium Mesh has been archived by the GitHub Archive Program in the Arctic Code Vault!

Arctic Code Vault
GitHub Arctic Code Vault

GitHub Archive Program's mission is to preserve open source software for future generations by storing public open source code repositories in an archive built to last a thousand of years.

GitHub took a snapshot of all active public open source repositories on 2nd Feb, 2020 to archive in the code vault. The total data of 21 TB was stored using digital photo sensitive archive film designed to last for a thousand years.

Arctic Code Vault Contributor Badge!

To recognize and celebrate the contributions of all the software developers, GitHub now shows a badge on the GitHub profile page. Hovering on the badge shows some of the repositories that were included in the archive.

I hope they do the archive again in coming years since the current archive contains old version with quite a few bugs!

Sunday, July 12, 2020

How To Enforce Google Safe Search And YouTube Restricted Mode On Your Network

With the release of Technitium DNS Server v5, a new feature called ANAME resource record has been introduced. ANAME resource record implementation is similar to the IETF draft with respect to its core functionality that allows adding a CNAME like functionality to the zone root. Essentially, ANAME is similar to CNAME except that the authoritative DNS server resolves the A or AAAA records by itself and returns them.

The new release also adds Conditional Forwarder feature that can be combined with the ANAME feature to enforce Google's Safe Search or YouTube's Restricted Mode.

To configure Google's Safe Search, you need to add a new "" Conditional Forwarder zone with "Use This DNS Server" option enabled. The "Use This DNS Server" option tells the DNS Server to forward all the queries to itself so that you do not need to configure any other DNS server as a forwarder. This option is useful in scenarios like the current one where you just need to override a few records for a particular zone but still wish that the other records in the zone to be resolvable as usual.

Add New Conditional Forwarder Zone

Once you have added the zone, you need to add a CNAME record that points "" to "" and another ANAME record that points "" to "". Check the screenshot below to know how the records should look like.

Enforcing Google Safe Search

You can now test this by clicking on the DNS Client tab and querying for "". Now open "" in your web browser and try doing a search and notice the Safe Search option on the top right corner.

Similarly, to configure YouTube's restricted mode, you need to add a new "" Conditional Forwarder zone with "Use This DNS Server" option enabled. Once the new zone is added, you need to add a CNAME record that points "" to "" and another ANAME record that points "" to "". This will enforce "Strict Restricted Mode".  To enforce "Moderate Restricted Mode" you need to point your ANAME record to "" instead. Once you have configured the records, they should look as shown the screenshot below.

Enforcing YouTube Strict Restricted Mode

You can now test this too with the DNS Client tab by querying "". You can open "" in your web browser and check if the restricted mode is working by searching with any keyword.

The Conditional Forwarder zone is quite useful that not only you can forward queries to one or more DNS providers by adding one or more FWD records, you can override records that you wish and have the zone resolve as usual for other records.

If you have any queries, do let me know in the comments section below. For any feedback or support do send an email to

Sunday, July 5, 2020

Technitium DNS Server v5 Released!

I am really happy to announce the release of Technitium DNS Server v5. This version is a major upgrade with many new core features, a lot of memory and CPU optimizations, and multiple bug fixes done. Download the latest update now!

Technitium DNS Server v5

Technitium DNS Server is a free, open source software that can be used by anyone be it a novice or an expert user. The server aims to have a user friendly approach, providing an easy to use web based GUI, and with defaults that allow the server to run out-of-the-box.

The DNS server can be used to self host domain names, used as a local resolver on a desktop or laptop computer, or used as a DNS server for the entire local network. It supports many useful and powerful features like blocking domain names using block lists, overriding records for any domain, use forwarders or conditional forwarders with DNS-over-TLS or DNS-over-HTTPS, and host your own DNS-over-TLS or DNS-over-HTTPS service.

The DNS Server is cross platform and can run on Windows, Linux and macOS. It has small footprint and thus can run even on a Raspberry Pi.

Once you have used Technitium DNS Server, you will realize how powerful it is and how silly it is to rely on your ISP's DNS servers.

Conditional Forwarder Zone

Features that you may find interesting in this release:
  • QNAME minimization support in recursive resolver for privacy.
  • ANAME propriety record support to allow using CNAME like feature at zone root.
  • Primary and Secondary zone support with NOTIFY implementation and zone transfer support. 
  • Stub zone support that allows the DNS server to keep track of the name servers of the zone.
  • Conditional Forwarder zone support which allows to configure multiple forwarders for a specific domain name with all protocol support including DNS-over-HTTP or DNS-over-TLS protocols.
  • Ability to override records of a live domain name using conditional forwarder or stub zone. This allows you to easily implements things like forced Google safe search or YouTube's restricted mode.
  • Concurrent querying with more than one forwarder allows to get fastest response from multiple forwarders.
  • Option to change the DNS Server local ports for TCP and UDP protocols. 
Read the change log to know more in details about the latest release.

Conditional Forwarder Zone with Overridden Records For Google Force Safe Search

The DNS Server code has been optimized for CPU, memory and concurrency. The server now notably has a very small memory footprint which allows loading a couple of million blocked domain names easily via the blocks list URLs on a Raspberry Pi with just 1 GB RAM. The time it takes to load the blocked lists too has improved significantly.

The DNS server now internally uses a new ByteTree data structure which is a complete lock less implementation allowing concurrent threads to do read and write operations. This allows the DNS server to handle large amount of concurrent requests easily while also allowing it to update the cache data parallelly.

With the limited hardware that is available with me for testing, the DNS server was load tested on a machine with Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-8700 CPU @ 3.20GHz on a 1 Gbps wired Ethernet network. The server could resolve more than 2 million requests per minute with an average 30% CPU utilization consistently for 3 hours. The client machine that was used to bombard requests however would peak out at 100% CPU preventing from adding any more load on the server for the load test. This update is supposed to fix issues in the previous version that caused the CPU to peak, failing to handle load more that couple of thousand requests per second.

Any comment or feedback is really appreciated and helps a lot in adding new features and fixing bugs. Do send your feedback or support requests to For any feature request or reporting bug, do create an issue on GitHub.

The DNS Server code is available under GNU General Public Licence (GPL) v3 on GitHub.

You can now make your contributions to Technitium by becoming a Patron and help in developing new software, updates and adding more features possible. Become a Patron now!